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Evidence And Anatomical Comparison

When we look at the anatomy of some animal groups, we will find similarities on the structure of certain parts of the body. For example, if we compare the front legs of bird, bat, whale, cat, horse, and human, then there are similarities in components of the movement organs. The front movement organs of those animals are composed of long bone, radius and ulna bone, wrist bone, palm bone, and finger bone. Generally, each bone in each animal has different in size.

The similarities of the structure of the animals show the relation between them. It is assumed that the animals come from the same ancestor. shape and size differences on certain organ structure are resulted from functional adaptation process to different habitat. The same basic structure of some organs which have different function is called homologous. The example of it can be found in circulatory and urogenital system of vertebrate.


The homologous of front movement organs of some species

Fossil can discover the relation between groups of organisms

  1. a.Fossil Archaeopteryx 
  2. b.Comparison between dinosaur (left) and Archaeopteryx (right) 

 Source: Biology. The unity and diversity of life, 2004
Senin, 09 Juni 2014

Biogeographical Evidence

Geographical spread coverage of living organism shows a lot of weird things that can be explained well as a result of evolution. Darwin noted that some animal found in Galapagos island looked like with the animals living in south America. The condition shows that the animals he found in Galapagos were the result of evolution from the animal that came from South America.

The weird spread patterns can be explained by the assumption That every species is inherited from the ancestors who naturally live in the continent. Moreover, the following generations spread to suitable habitat. The animal spread will stop when it come across barrier in the continent. The spread of terrestrial animal is blocked by sea so that the species will have geographical isolation. The isolated animals will mate to each other and produced individuals that are able to adapt certain environmental condition.



Source: Biology, Evolution Indicator

Human Genetic Disorder Procedure Test

Clinical genetic experts and other professional health experts usually use several tests and procedures to determine whether a person has a genetic disorder or has a child who risks to carry genetic disorder. The test may be conducted several times in the person's life. The following procedures are usually conducted.

The Following Procedures are Usually Conducted


  • Human Genetic Disorder Procedure Test Pre-Implantation Diagnoses, Pre-implantation diagnose is a kind of test that can be conducted in early possibility of life stage. The test is conducted along with in vitro insemination, that is, a procedure to integrate egg cell with sperm cell in a laboratory. Before an embryo resulted from in vitro insemination is attached in mother's womb, the doctor will first remove one cell from the developing embryo to analyze its DNA. DNA analysis is conducted to find out the correlation between abnormality and certain genetic disease that comes up.
  • Human Genetic Disorder Procedure Test Pre-natal Observation There are two types of prenatal tests to determine whether the fetus has abnormal gene or chromosome. The first test is conducted by examining genetic abnormality toward villous in chorion in the tenth week of pregnancy. The tissues are taken from the parts of the growing placenta. 
The second test is taken by using amniosynthesis technique, particularly towards mother above 35 years old. The test is conducted on the 14th and 20th weeks of pregnancy. In his case, the doctor will take several spoons of amnion fluid containing urine and fetus cells which can be used to find out the chromosome condition within cell. The cells inside amnion fluid can also be used to check the presence of DNA mutation and enzymes that become identification mark of genetic abnormality.


  • Human Genetic Disorder Procedure Test Prenatal Screening

Prenatal Test Technique for Genetic Disorder



  1. Chorionic villous sampling (CVS)
  2. amniosynthesis


Prenatal screening is a genetic screening conducted during pregnancy period to identify fetus towards the risk of the presence of genetic abnormality. The screening is conducted by analyzing the existence of 3 substances in pregnant mother's blood, which are fetoprotein, estriol and gonadotropin in human chorion. The substances are important to sign a certain problem happening to the fetus.

  • Human Genetic Disorder Procedure Test Observation After Birth Genetic observation to the newborn baby is needed to identify genetic disorder that can affect the baby. The newborn baby that has a sicklemia anemia disease is at risk of death. To prevent the risk, the baby will be given antibiotic immediately after being diagnosed. If the baby has PKU case, the doctor will give a special diet recipe that does not contain phenylalanine. If the baby has galactosemia case, the doctor will usually give a diet of galactose. The purpose of the diet is to prevent from such additional substance on the level that can cause mental disorder and death. 
  • Human Genetic Disorder Procedure Test Observation toward. Carrier Individual This test is usually aimed to diagnose recessive gene abnormality within autosome which is usually experienced by a person with certain ethnic background. For example, Jew descendants in East Europe territory will be observed to find out the carrier possibility toward Tay-Sach disease, cystic fibrosis and Canavan disease (a sort of nerve abnormality disease). Jew or Italian descendants will always be observed toward the case of thalassemia B, while Southeast Asian and Chinese descendants will always be observed toward thalassemia alfa case.
  • Human Genetic Disorder Procedure Test FamiIy Tree Observation Family tree can be used to trace back certain genetic characteristic pathway to three or more generations. 
 For example, a family tree which illustrates a gene inheritance related to cystic fibrosis will be very useful for the genetic advisor to determine a person within the family who risks to inherit one genetic abnormality or abnormal gen carrier. A family health history will be useful to identify the level of person health toward the risk of a genetic abnormality development. To gain the family's historical data, the health Expert will ask the health history of the family members to three or more generations. The information will be recorded as a graphic picture.


Example Human Genetic Disorder Procedure Test FamiIy Tree Observation


Hemophilia Inheritance In Russian Kingdom family. Through family tree map, genetic characteristic pathway is traced back to three or more generations.



Source: Biology, concept &connection, 2006
Kamis, 03 April 2014

Chemical, Physical, Biological Mutagen

Mutagen or known as mutation agent is any thing that can cause mutation, Based on the type, mutagen is distinguished into chemical mutagen, physical mutagen (radiation), and biological mutagen.



Chemical Mutagen

Chemical mutagen is a mutation agent which is in the form of chemical substance, It can mimic nitrogen base in normal DNA' but they cannot couple during DNA replication. Moreover, chemical mutagen has an ability to insert between nitrogen bases and disturb DNA replication' The examples of chemical mutagen can be seen in Types And Characteristics Of Mutagen .

Physical Mutagen

Physical mutagen is a mutation agent which is in the form of physical substances, such as short wave (ultraviolet and radiation ray such as alpha, beta, and gamma). Some physical mutagens can cause ionization while some others cannot.

Ionization usually occurs because the radiation source has very large energy, For example, radiation from radioactive substances (uranium, radium, cobalt), X-ray, and cosmic ray, If DNA molecules are hit by the radiation, the DNA chain will loose. In consequence, the DNA chain cannot function in protein synthesis.

Ultraviolet ray generally do not cause ionization, However, the energy from ultravlolet ray will be absorbed by purine and ppimidine so that the atom becomes more reactive (the electron undergoes exitation). Consequently, DNA double-helix becomes in disorder and inhibits replication, One of the effects caused by ultraviolet ray is skin cancer.

When we watch black and white television in an hour, we will be hit by I mrem radiation every hour, If we watch colored television, the effect becomes doubled, If we are diagnosed by X-ray, we will be hit by 150 mrem radiation, and every time we have our teeth portrayed, we get hit by 20 mrem radiation, Note that I to 2 dosage of mrem is already able to induce mutation.

Biological Mutagen

Biological mutagen is a mutation agent in the from of virus or bacteria Which can include mutation in every living organisms

When cell divides, virus will change the genetic material (DNA) Composition of the attacked cell I order to damage the cell and tissues Toxin produced by bacteria can also cause disorder or damage on genetic Material or certain cell and tissues. Hepatitis, chickenpox, measles, yellow Fever, or food poisoning (botulism) may begin from genetical material change induced either by virus or bacteria

Source: Human Biology, 2004

7 Syndrome Disorder In Human System

The Following are some of Disorder


Turner Syndrome (46, XO)
Turner syndrome occurs when ovum is fertilized by sperm that has no sex chromosome (caused by non-disjunction event in cell division). Or, when sperm fertilizes ovum that has no sex chromosomes (caused by non-disjunction event in cell division).

Turner syndrome sufferers are usually females who have 45 chromosomes consisting of. 44 somatic chromosomes (autosome) and I sex chromosome. Persons suffering from Turner syndrome are usually infertile and in general have no ovary nor oogenesis, small uterus, poor breast development, short stature (dwarfism) low-set ears, and intelligence that is below normal. The case was first introduced by H H turner (1938) in the united state

Klinefelter Syndrome (47, XXY)
Klinefelter syndrome occurs when an ovum having double sex chromosome (XX, caused by nondisjunction of the sex chromosome) is fertilized by sperm with Y sex chromosome. Or, when a normal ovum is fertilized by sperm that has XY chromosome. Therefore, the affected individuals are male with 47 chromosomes (44 autosomes and 3 sex chromosomes).

Klinefelter sufferers are usually sterile because the testes and the prostate gland have small size and have broken sperm duct, undergo breast enlargement (due to the fat tissue accumulation), have long and thin body parts, have normal or small size penis, have woman-like voice, narrow cliest, and wide hips. These characteristics appear when they are grown up. The syndrom was flrst discovered by H. E. Klinefelter (1942).

Jacobs Syndrome ( 47, XYY)
Jacobs syndrome occurs when an ovum is fertilized by a sperm having YY chromosome (because it fails to separate in the sex chromosome). The fertilization results an offspring with 47 chromosomes (consisting of 44 autosome and 3 sex chromosoms, that is XYY).

The characteristics of the Jacobs syndrome sufferers are aggressive, antisocial, having tall body, having frightening look, and having below normal IQ, about 80- 95. The syndrom was first introduced by P. A. Jacobs (1965).

Super Female Syndrome (47, XXX)
super female syndrom occurs when an ovum is fertilized by a sperm having XX chromosome. Or, an ovum having XX chromosome is fertilized by a sperm having X chromosome. The fertilization results in individual with 47 chromosomes (44 autosomes and 3 sex chromosomes, XXX). Persons suffering from this syndrome are usually infertile and have very low rate of survival, resulting from too many organ disorders.

Down Syndrome (47, XX or XY)
Down syndrome is trisomy condition in autosome 2 I (nondisjunction). The syndrome occurs in autosome, so that it can affect both male and female. The syndrome was first discovered by J.L Down (1866).



A girl suffering from down syndrome who can still be cheerful Persons suffering from Down syndrome are often identiffed as a mongolism (looks like a Mongolian beeause of the fold on the upper eye lid). They tend to be shorter than average, rounded face, epichantic fold of the eyelid, an almond-shaped of eyes, spot on the iris, protruding tongue , thick tips (hanging down lower lip), wide and flat nose' small ears that may fold over a little at the top, a single palmar fold, short and fat fingers, a larger than normal space between the big and second toes.They usually also have heart defect and lower than average IQ (about 20 to 50).

Edwards Sindrome (47, XX or XY)
Edwards syndrome occurs because of trysomy in autosome number 18 so that the individuals having this syndrome have 47 chromosomes (45 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes), Some characteristics of Edwards syndrome are oval-shaped skull, large clitoris, short and wide chest, epicanthal fold, and dermatoglyphs.

Patau Sindrome (47, XX or XY)
Patau syndrome occurs because of trisomy in autosome 13. Persons having Patau's syndrome have 47 chromosomes with 46 chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. The characteristics of Patau's syndrome are having gmall head, small eyes, low-set ears, cleft palate, deaf and polydactyl.

In addition, they have heart disorder, kidney disorder, large spleen, and lower than average IQ. They usually only live for couples of hours or days after they are born.

source: Essential Biology, 2006
Rabu, 02 April 2014

Genetic Disease In Human System

Genetic disease is bequeathed from generation to generation. The medication effort conducted toward genetic disease symptoms is called euphonic. Euphonic has an important role in healing anemia genetic disease and in discovering monoclonal antibody. Monoclonal antibody is composed of hybrid cells obtained from the conjugation of plasma cells with myeloma that is produced in a large amount. Myeloma is a white blood cell tumor.

Nowadays, a procedure called gene therapy is widely applied to cure some genetic diseases. In one of the gene therapy methods, the virus that bas been engineered genetically is used as a vector to insert a new gene. The new gene can function well in human cell to produce hormone or protein needed by the body.

If a genetic disease is caused by the abnormality of an enzyme, then the abnormal enzyme can be replaced by the normal one. For example, glucocerebrocidace enzyme is given to the patient of Gaucher disease. Gaucher disease occurs because of the presence of recessive gene in autosome due to the lack of glucocerbrocidace. A person who was born with such case will have long bone size and big lymph.



In general, the genetic disease has various and complicated symptoms. That is why the genetic disease requires more than one treatment.

Example The Medication For Genetic Disease

  1. a child who suffers from cystic fibrosis usually gets pancreas Enzyme to support the food digestion.
  2. a surgeon will also Conduct lung transplantation to save the patient.
  3. sicklemia anemia sufferers generally receive medicines To overcome pain and anemia as well as to prevent infection
They probably Receive blood transfusion to increase the amount of red blood cells in their Body in order to be normal. Several patients can also be helped by bone Marrow transplantation. more genetic disorder

source: Genetic disease and disorder human system
Senin, 31 Maret 2014

Incest Formula of Hardy-Weinberg Law

Incest is included in inbreeding. Genotype frequency for such case can be calculated by using

Formula of Hardy-Weinberg Law 


The F Value in variety of incest are as follows



For example, in a random marriage in society, the probability of PKU case to occur is about I out of 10,000. In accordance to Hardy-Weinberg Law, the genotype frequency is:



If incest between level 1 nephews occur, then the probability of PKU case to occur is



Based on the above examples, we can conclude that the chance of PKU To appear in the marriage between level I cousins is 2.2 times bigger than That in a random or a non incest marriage.

lncest Can Cause Genetic Disease 

The research result indicates that there is a tight correlation between incest occuring in a society and the number of genetic disease case. The more incest occurs in society, the bigger the chance of genetic disease to appear. more  Hardy–Weinberg principle

Source: formula Hardy-Weinbreg disease
Minggu, 30 Maret 2014

Kinds of Genetic Diseases - Some Genetic Disease

Kinds of Genetic Diseases
Some genetic diseases have been studied in the previous sub-chapter. The followings are other genetic diseases that are important to be studied.

Huntington Disease

Huntington disease is a genetics disease which is related to the nerve system. in this case, the sufferer gets unconscious continuous movement in his hands, arms, face, eyes and other parts of his body. The muscles of the parts of his body will get weaker, so that he will get difficulty in walking, talking and eating. Moreover, the sufferer also has problem in the development of concentration, memory and emotion. The Huntington disease is hidden because the symptom will appear in the age of 35 to 50 years old.

Huntington disease was first introduced by George Huntington (US) in 1872. This disease is caused by the mutation of certain gene chromosome number 4. In 1993, the scientists had identified that the genes causing Huntington disease carry an order to compose one big protein called huntingtin One abnormal Huntington gene will also produce abnormal huntingtin protein. The presence of abnormal huntingtin protein Ieads to the death of brain cells.

Cystic Fibrosis



 The suffer of cystic fibrosis The thick and adhesive mucus blocks the function of lungs and pancreas
Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder which makes the body secrete the adhesive and thick mucus abnormally. The mucus will block pancreas and lungs and generate problem in respiratory and digestive tract, infection, and finally death.

Cystic fibrosis is caused by the abnormality in recessive gene in chromosome number 7. The chromosome is responsible for the formation of CFTR. The CFIR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is the protein that controls chloride ion to flow in and out of lung cell, pancreas, sweat gland, and small intestine.

If there is no CFTR formed the chloride transport from or out of cell is blocked and the thick and adhesive mucus is formed. The mucus will block organs' channel. The blockage of lungs will block the air flow and disturb the mechanism against bacterial infection. The blockage of pancreas make the important digestive enzymes unable to reach small intestine; therefore, the organ cannot digest food. Lack of CFTR also makes sweat gland unable to reabsorb the chloride ions. As a result, a lot of salt will come out of the body altogether with sweat and it causes dehydration to the body.

Albino



Albino is a genetic disorder happening in a body where pigmentation is not formed normally. Melanin pigment is the main factor that gives color in normal person. The pigment is not formed to the albino sufferer because of the absence of tyrosine enzyme that functions in melanin formation. As a result, the person suffering from albino has pale skin, white hair, and pink eyes. They tend to avoid light and always wink their eyes because they do not have any protection towards intense light. The albino sufferer has mystagmus feature or uncontrolled movement of the eyes. This is caused by the absence of melanin in certain brain tissues.

A person suffering from albino has recessive homozygous genotype, mm. The genotype of normal person is MM or Mm. Look at the heredity pattern of the marriage between an albino carrier man and an albino carrier woman in the following figure.


Phenylketouria (PKU) or Mental Disorder


PKU is a genetic disease caused by the recessive gene within autosome. The genotype possibilities of a normal person are AA and, Aa, while PKU sufferer has aa genotype. Look at the following figure.


The person with PKU undergoes deficiency of an enzyme which processes phenylalanine of amino acid; as the consequence, phenylalanine is accumulated in blood. If there is no immediate treatment over PKU, it will lead to mental retardation and serious nerve problem. PKU occurs to around one of 10,000 to 12,000 babies born in USA.

In normal condition, phenylalanine is converted into other form of amino acid, that is tyrosine. In PKU case, hydroxylase phenylalanine enzyme which is responsible for the conversion cannot perform its function properly.

source:www.wellesley.edu
Rabu, 26 Maret 2014

Homologous Chromosomes And Chromatic In Meiosi

Nondisjunction

Fail to separate or nondisjunction is the failure of one, some, or all chromosomes to separate during meiosis. Nondisjunction occurs in meiosis I or II It can cause a change in chromosome quantity within genital cell.

Non-disjunction homologous chromosomes in meiosis I 

Nondisjunction chromatid in meiosis II

The change in chromosome quantity depends on the quantity of non-disjunctive chromosome. If nondisjunction occurs only in a certain number of chromosomes, for instance, number 5, then, the change of chromosome quantity only occurs in number 5. On the other hand, if non disjunction occurs in all chromosome numbers, then, all chromosome numbers (from no I to 23) will have a change in their quantity. As a result, the formed gamete may contain twice as many as the normal quantity and the other gamete may not contain chromosome at all. If an organism having one set of even normal chromosomes (2n, 4n, 6n) undergoes nondisjunction, then, the new offsprings produced will have odd chromosome set (n, 3n,5n)1. The new offsprings usually cannot produce cell (sterile).

Source: Essential Biology, 2006 
Senin, 17 Maret 2014