Sabtu, 25 November 2017

About Ketoconazole Interactions of Other Drugs

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Ketoconazole is a type of drug used to treat fungal infections of the skin. For example, ringworm in the legs, body, or groin, panu, seborrheic dermatitis, and dandruff. This anti-fungal drug can kill the fungus that causes infection, while preventing it.

Formyco, Formico Cream, Nizol, Nizoral Cream, Nizoral-SS, Solinfec, Solinfec Cream, Okasid, Tokacid Cream, Zoloral Cream, Zoloral-SS.

About Ketoconazole

  • Anti-fungal Medication Group
  • Free drug categories and recipes
  • Benefits, Handles yeast infections, treat dandruff
  • Used by Adults and children over 2 years old
  • Shape Tablets, topical medicines, shampoo
  • Category of pregnancy and lactation Category C: Animal experiments have shown fetal side effects, but no controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Drugs should only be used if the expected benefits exceed the magnitude of the risk to the fetus.

  1. For women who are planning pregnancy and are pregnant, consult a physician first before using ketoconazole.
  2. While breastfeeding mothers are prohibited from using this drug.
  3. It is important for the patient to use this medicine within the time period recommended by the physician to ensure that the fungal cause of the infection is completely destroyed, and prevent it from growing again.
  4. Ketoconazole topical should only be used as an external medicine. do not use them on wounded, scratched, or burned skin.
  5. Please be alert if you have irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), allergy to other antifungal drugs, liver disorders, low levels of tertosterone, adrenal gland disorders, and low stomach acid.
  6. Avoid alcohol consumption during oral ketoconazole use as it may increase the risk of liver disorders.
  7. During using ketoconazole, tell your doctor before undergoing any medical treatment.
  8. If an allergic reaction or an overdose occurs, see your doctor immediately.

The dose of ketoconazole depends on the type of infection, the degree of difficulty, and the given form of the drug.

The recommended cream and ketoconazole shampoo is 2%. Cream ketoconazole can be smeared 1-2 times a day on the infected part and ketoconazole shampoo can be used as much as 1 time a day for a maximum of 5 days.

While ketoconazole in tablet form, taken with a dose of 200 mg per day. This dose can be increased by a doctor up to 400 mg if needed. Especially for children, the oral ketoconazole dose will be adjusted to the patient's weight.

How to properly use Ketoconazole
Use ketoconazole as recommended by your doctor and do not forget to read the description on the package. discipline to use this drug before the period specified by the doctor. Although the infection appears to have healed, the fungus still has the potential to grow back.

Before applying ketoconazole cream, clean and dry the infected part first. Do not forget to wash your hands after applying this medicine to avoid spreading the infection to other parts of the body or to others.

For a ketoconazole shampoo, flatten the shampoo shampoo to cover all the hair and scalp. After that, let stand for 5 minutes before rinsed clean. If on the eyes, immediately flush with water.

Make sure there is sufficient time between one dose with the next dose during taking oral ketocoazole. Try to drink it at the same hour each day in order to maximize the effects of the drug.

For patients who forget to take oral ketocoazole, it is advisable to do so immediately if the break with the next consumption schedule is not too close. When it is near, ignore and do not double the dose.

Interactions of Ketoconazole and Other Drugs
There are various drugs that have the potential to cause undesirable reactions if taken in conjunction with ketoconazole. Some of them include:

  • Muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA), magnesium hydroxide antacids, H2 inhibitors, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and sucralfates; decrease the body's absorption capacity against ketoconazole.
  • Rifampicin, isoniazid, efavirenz, nevirapine, and phenytoin; lower levels of ketoconazole in the blood.
  • Family planning pills; its effectiveness may decrease due to ketoconazole.
  • Digoxin, oral anticoagulant, sildenafil, and tacrolimus; the effect of increasing enzyme levels to speed up drug expenditure from the body.
  • Midazolam and triazolam; sedative and hypnotic effects of these drugs can be increased by co-administration with ketoconazole.
  • Astemizole, cisapride, dofetilide, pimozide, quinidine and terfenadine; levels of these drugs in the blood can increase due to ketoconazole, also potentially leading to heart rhythm disturbances.
  • Lovastatin and simvastatin; increased risk of muscle disorders.
  • Nisoldipine; the levels of these drugs can increase significantly in the blood due to ketoconazole.
  • Eplerenone; increased risk of hyperkalemia and hypotension.
  • Ergotamine and dihydroergotamine; enhancement

Recognize Side Effects and Dangers of Ketoconazole
Each drug has the potential to cause side effects, as well as ketoconazole. Some of the side effects that may occur when using this antifungal include:

  1. Nausea.
  2. Diarrhea.
  3. Headache.
  4. Stomach ache.
  5. Biduran.
  6. Thrombocytopenia.
  7. Fever.
  8. Shivering.
  9. Rash or skin irritation.
  10. Sensitive to light.
  11. Burning sensation or sore on the skin.

Immediately stop taking medication and see a doctor if you have an allergic reaction or serious side effects, such as flatulence, swelling of the hands, feet or ankles, numbness, chest pain, visual impairment, dark urine, weakness, fatigue, irregular heartbeat, and the desire to commit suicide.

Jumat, 10 November 2017

The Growth And Development Of Plants

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growth and development of plants are different with animal. In the animal, growth and development happen in all parts of the body. while in plant, growth and development happen only in certain parts.

1. Grow in Plants
Growth in plants happen in meristematic
region, that is in the tip of stem and the up of root. The meristematic r├ęgion i3 aLso called growth point.

Growth in the plant can be measured quantitatively by using device, which is called auxanometer

Growth in plants is divided into two kinds, those are primary growth and secondary growth.

a. Primary Growth

Primary growth is the increment of length size in the part of plant’s stem because the presence of activity of primary menstem tissue. The primary meristem is called also apical meristem became found in the edge of stem and the edge of root. The primary growth makes stem and root higher or longer.

Based on its activity, the growth region in the tip of root and the tip of stem is separated into three growth regions, those are.

1) Cell Fision Region

In this region it happens multiplication of rells by fonnation of new cells. Besides, the cell fision regior. region that fastest to grow.

2) Cell Extension

On this regional happens the change of Cell size to be extend. The Cell extending region is located behind the Cell fision region.

3 Cell Different Regional
in this regional happens the development of Cell to be various particular types, beaides, the Cell difference region is Cell maturation Cell region, For example, young leaft (prikordia) is formed by meristem found in the edge of the steam. Then this young leaf wraps the edge part and form bud.

The Cell differenciation region is located on region ini which happens Organs that have different structure and function 

b. Secondary Growth

Secondary growth is the increment of size or thickness of a plant body organs because of the activity of secondary meristematic tissue, that is F ellogen in stem cambium and root. The secondary growth causes the enlargement of stem diameter.

In woody dicotyledon plants, the secondary growth happens because of the presence of meristematic cells activity between xylem and phloem. The xylem is formed to internal direction and phloem is formed to external direction. But the velocity of growth (formation) between xylem and phloem are different. Growth velocity in inner part is faster than growth in external part, so it makes epidermic tissue and cortex in outer skin will be broken.

Based on the growth point of plant, there are two theories of growth point in plant, those are.

1) Histogenic Theory

Teori Histogen Histogenic theory is provided by Hanstein. The theory states, that the growth of plant organs are formed by 3 tissues former layers, those are.
a) Dermatogen, that is outer layer that forms epidermic.
b) Periblem, that is inner layer that forms cortex.
c) Pleuron, that is inner layer that forms stele.

2) Tunica Corpus Theory

Tunika Corpus theory is stated by SchmidtJhis theory states that the growth of plant body organs formed there are 2 layers of tissue former, those are.

(a) Tunica, that is outer layer that forms epidermic and cortex.
(b) Corpus, that is inner layer that forms stele.

Exercise Growth and Development

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Answer the questions below correctly!

1. What is meant by growth and development?
2. Write down the difference between growth and development!
3. Write down factors that influence growth and development!
4. Write down the function of gene!
5. Why sunlight is required by organisms mainly green plants?

Kamis, 09 November 2017

External Factors That Influence Growth and Development

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External factors are factors that come from outside of the body of the organisms theirself.

Factors included into external factors among others are as follows.


Food is main factor for growth and development of the organisms. The food is raw material which then will be processed in metabolism event, so it produces energy. The energy is very required for growth.

In plants, their food in the form of substance and mineral (nutrient element) which is contained in the soil. The plants will get growth disturbance (abnormal) if they lack of substance and


Every organism has tolerance limit to temperature. If the temperature of surrounding is too cold or too hot, the organisms cannot grow and develop perfectly. But every organism has tolerance limit to different surrounding temperature.

light (Ray)

Light (ray) is very required for life, mainly sunlight. All organisms need sunlight. For example, green plants need sunlight to support photosynthesis process. Besides, the light also has function as factor of growth inhibitor, because can make nonacttvatian of auxin growth hormone

Air Humidity
In certain limits, the humidity influences vapourization process. The humid soil and air have good influence for growth. 

Rabu, 08 November 2017

Internal Factors That Influence Growth development Human, Plant And Animal

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Factor that influence Grow and Development

Growth and development are influenced by internal factors or external factors. 

1. Internal Factors
Internal factors are factors that come from inside of the body of the organisms theirself. Factors which included into internal factors are as follows. 

a. Gene Gen 
Gene is property that doesn’t appear from outside. The gene is formed of some nucleate acid that is composed in macromolecule called DNA. The gene has function as carrier of genetic factors, so the pmperty owned by its parent will be derived to its descendant.

b. hormone
Hormones that are involved in the process of growth and development among others are. 

1) Growth Hormone
Growth hormone is hormone that race growth. In plant such as auxin that race growth of sprout. In human, such as hypophysis gland that race the growth of bones and muscles. 

2) The Hormone of Growth inhibitor
The hormone of growth inhibitor is a hormone which functions to stop the activity of growth and development. A condition in which there is no activity of growth and development is called dormant.

3) The Hormone of Body Organs Former 
The hormone of body organs former is a hormone that has function to stimulate the formation of body organs. In plant, for example Rhizokalin hormone has function to stimulate root formation.

4) Injury Hormone
Injury hormone is a hormone that stimulates formation of new tissue from the edge part of injury which then will cover that injury part. In plant, for example traumaltn will cover kalus tissue that will cover the lnjury.

Source Biologi Senior High School

Selasa, 07 November 2017

Growth And Development Plant and Animal

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After learning this chapter, you Will able to explain factor that influence growth and development. Also compare metamorfosis and metagenesis.

Every organism, the both plant and animal, they have ability to grow and develop. Try to consider your self. You also do the processing of growth and development.what is the growth and development.

Growth and development are processes ini which the both simultan royalti. according the processing of growth and development are inseparable separated of each other.

Growth is the processing of size increase which is irreversible ( cannot back to the origin). Which involves volume increment, length (height) increment, and masa increment. This condition can be shown to humans when they are just born, the length of baby's body ia about 45 cm and the increment of body's. (Try to measure length and masa each of your body).

Grow has the following characteristics.
  1. It has quantitatiave property ( can be counted or stated in number unit)
  2. Itu found in meristem tissue (for plant).
  3. The production by mitos
Development is process of becoming mature. Meanwhile the characteristics of development are as follows:
  1. It has quantitative property (cannot be measure)
  2. It found in gamete
  3. The reproduction by meiosis.
For example in plant, development until adult stage ia marked by production or formation of flower. The flower is gamete in plant.

Growth and development are influenced by several factors, whether factors from inside (internal) or factors that come from outside (external).

Rabu, 18 November 2015

Scientific report contains the formulation of problems and hypothesis, goal, method, result, discussion, and conclusion

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The results of science experiment need to the recorded in the form of a science report. It contains a description of experiment written in concise form. The description should be clear and systematic, outlining the following points; the formulation of problem and hypothesis, goal, method, result, discussion, and conclusion.

The Formula of problem and Hypothesis
The experiment is started with a question  (or question), then followed by hypothesis formulation. For example, the question is why does plant A grow better in open spaces than plant B does in shaded in shaded places? The hypothesis is that sunshine affects the rate of growth of plant A

To understand the aim of an experiment, one can answer these question
1.       Why does the experiment need to be performed?
2.       What problem will be solved?
3.       What hypothesis will be tested?

For example, the aim of the sample experiment to is to know the effect of light towards the growth of plant A.

Method is a description of the steps we are going to take and how to pursue them. Besides, we also need to record species used in the experiment, tools and chemicals, and controls to be set. In the sample, we need a flux meter to measure light intensity and ruler or vernier calipers to measure plant height and diameter, in order to determine the growth.

See picture

The results of experiments are the data collected. During research, data can be obtained or read as results. For instance, the sample will yield data on the height of plants on varying light intensity including the control. Also, limited qualitative data can be obtained such as the characteristics of the leaves, stem, and root. All data should be recorded well.

Data need to be presented concisely and systematically. It will help other to understand the result of the experiment. To choose the best form of presentation of data, one need to know the data type. If the data quantitave. It can be presented in the form of schemes or a detailed description. For example, the characteristic of an organism can be presented by describing morphology (shape, size, and color) or the developmental process of an organism such as the stages of butterfly metamorphosis. If the data is quantitave. Such as number, presentation can be in the form of tables, diagram, and graph.

The discussion of the result should be whether they support or do not support the hypothesis. Reliability and validity of the results should be considered, whether there are any errors in the results and what the magnitude of these errors would be. Additional relevant information can be collected from scientific books and articles. They act as additional support or comparison toward the results.
A scientific article is a published version of experimental results. Scientific article can be found in scientific journals or periodicals. Generally, the structure of a scientific article are introduction, content, and conclusion.


The conclusion is the summary of the results and discussion of the experiment. It is made by answering the initial aim. Again, the result may or may not support the hypothesis.

Selasa, 17 November 2015

Several Steps In a Scientific, Formulating problems, Proposing Hypotesis, Drawing Conclusion

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A person who studies biology is called a biologist. Biologists learn about nature not only from reading but also from investigating organism and the phenomena of life directly. The investigation and study are done systematically; a process called a scientist method.

Scientist Method
Scientist work scientifically by a scientific method. It is away or series of steps of action that are followed by scientists in doing scientific investigation or research. It can be formulated in several steps.

Formulating a Problem
Scientific investigation is started when a question arises in regard to the natural world For example, we see two plants growing in two different places, one is in open-lighted space (plant A) and the other is in shaded space (plant B). we may ask then why the growth of plant A is better than plant B

See Formulating Problem and question

Proposing a Hypothesis
Problem which are formulated in the form of question will raise proposed responses. These responses are temporary answers or hypothesis toward the formulated problem.

A hypothesis is often based on previous knowledge and scientific research. They can be obtained from books, journal articles, newspaper, internet or quotations.

In the case, the hypothesis will be plant A grows better in open space than plant B in shaded place because sunshine affects the rate of growth of plant A.

Performing an Experiment
Hypothesis need to be tested or proven by performing an experiment. Before the actual experiment, measures on the kinds of materials and tools to used and affecting variables have to be determined

Determined Tools and Material
Before conducting an experiment, the tools and material have to be determined. Besides, the limitations of resources, including the available funds, have to be taken in to account.

The limitations of resources will greatly affect the proposed experiment. As an example, to know whether temperature plays a role in plant growth, there has to be a thermometer available. If it is not, the temperature cannot be measured accurately and its effects to plant growth will still be In question.

Determining Variables
The next step is determining the variables of the experiment. Variables are the characteristics of the objects which can be measured quantitatively and may have changing values. For example, the growth of the plant has height as its variable.

There are two kinds of variables in an experiment, independent and depend.

Independent variable is the variable that is changed or manipulated by the subject of experiment, while the dependent variable is the variable that changes due to the experiment.

In many biological experiment, there are usually two groups of treatment: a treatment group which receives treatment and a control group (i.e a group not receiving treatment). The treatment that are given to the group are based on the availability of tool, materials, and funds.

As an example, an experiment is done with the title, “ The Effect of Light Intesity towards Plant Grow”. The treated groups in this experiment receive a varying light intensity, while the control group is kept out in the open space. In this case, light intensity is the independent variable and plant growth is the dependent one. Meanwhile, all other variables that are not under investigation such as temperature and water are kept equal for both in threat and control groups. In order to ensure a fair test.

After tools, material, and variables are determined, the experiment, “The Effect of Light Intensity towards Plants Growth”, is started by placing plant A in spaces where light intensity varies. If it does not grow well where the light intensity is low, then we know that light is needed for growth. However, we still have to perform a controlled group by planting in a region with constant light intensity. This particular plant is the control or standard plant.

All the plants in the experiment should receive equal treatment for all other variables. Those are the kinds of the plant, the size of the port, the type of the soil, and the amount of water. It is very important that experiment is done in batches or repetition to ensure valid and reliable results.

Drawing Conclusions
After an experiment is done, conclusions can be drawn. A conclusion contains the results of the experiment. It may or may not support the formulated hypothesis.

Scientific Attitude
In researching an organism or phenomenon, biologists should be have scientifically. Scientific thinking and attitude will be useful in solving daily problem or phenomenon. They are explained below

1. Able to differentiate between facts and opinions

2. Honest and truth towards facts.

3. Courage based on hospitality in raising question and argumentation.

4. Exploring curiosity

5. Concern towards the environment.

6. Starting opinion or arguments scientifically and critically.

7. Dare to suggest improvement and be willing to be responsible for it

8. Cooperative

9. Discipline and perseperance

Senin, 16 November 2015


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The role of biology in the field of medicine is especially aimed at the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease and disorder. Here are some example of the use of biology in medicine.

  1. Organ transplant has given solution to those having medical problems because of organ defects.
  2. Virology has contributed to the medical wold by providing a framework to develop vaccines.
  3. Creating babies by in vitro fertilization has given option for couple unable to have babies by conventional means.
  4. Medical microbiology has succeded indetifying many human pathogenic bacteria so that countering antibiotic can be produced 

Animal Farming

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Biology Plays a major part in the development of production of farm animals. Here are some example of the use of biology in animal farming.

  1. Artificial insemination is developed by the advancement of animal anatomy, physiology, genetics, and embryology. This technique aims for obtaining carttle with high quality and increased production.
  2. Development of in vitro fertilization; in this technique, embryo is produced ex-uterus (outside the womb) of the female parent. Before embryos are implanted (attached to the uterus inner wall of the female cattle), they can be stored for a period of time liquid nitrogen of-196-C. Cattle can than be selected based on the best embryos, rather than replying on random mating to occur. In this way only the best cattle are selected to breed each time, thereby improving the overall quality of the herd.