Rabu, 17 April 2013

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2013 The Components Of Immune System Are macrophage, Lymphocyte And Antigen Receptor


1.   Macrophage

Macrophage is the white blood cell component which has the function of innate immunity through phagocytosis process. Before digesting the bacteria, macrophage tries to reach the bacteria and capture it with membrane extension called pseudopodia. After the bacteria is enveloped within the membrane, macrophage will ingest the bacteria one by one and then digest it.

To overcome infection, sometimes macrophage interacts with lymphocyte. For example, macrophage interacts with lymphocyte to fight bacteria Stretococcus pygenes.

Macrophage also plays a vital role in adaptive immunity that is by sending antigen to be destroyed by other components of adaptive immune system. Microphage is able to digest foreign particles, such as dust, asbestos particles, and bacteria. Macrophage can be found in strategic site of the body and in the organ related to blood circulation or outside environment, for example in lungs which receive air from the outside.

2.   Lymphocyte

Lymphocyte is the white blood cell that has specific function to identify and destroy invader antigen. All lymphocytes are formed in bone marrow, but they get mature in two different sites. The lymphocyte that is mature in bone marrow is called B lymphocyte or B cell. It produces antibody which circulates through blood and other body’s fluid.

The T lymphocyte or T cell is mature in thymus. T Lymphocyte is also called cytotoxic (poisonous cell) or killer T lymphocyte. The T cell kill directly all the cell having specific antigen on it is surface which has been recognized by T cells. The helper T lymphocyte controls the strength and quality of all immune responds. Mature lymphocyte cell flow constantly in blood toward thymus gland and back into the blood to monitor the body from invader substances continuously.

3.   Antigen Receptor

After having maturation, every lymphocyte will make one receptor antigen with a specific structure on the surface of lymphocyte cell. The structure will bind the proper structure in antigen, just like a lock and its key.

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