Types of tissue and glands composing endocrine system are as follows
Hypothalamus and Hypophysis glands
Hypothalamus contros internal environment through autonomy system, for example in controlling heart beats, body temperature, water balance, and hypophysis gland secretion.
Hypophysis gland (pituitary) lies within the loop of celaturcica bone inte center of sphenoid bone it is often called as the master of glands because it has many functions.
Hypophysis gland comprises of two lobes (part), which are the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe.
The anterior of hypophysis gland produces several hormone, which are as follows.
- Andrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has the function to control the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone in adrenal cortex gland.
- Thyrotropin (TSH= thyroid-stimutaing hormone) has the function to control the synthesis and secretion of thyroxin hormone in thyroid gland.
- Prolactin (PRL) has the function to influence milk gland growth and lactation as well as maintain corpus luteum and secrete (progesterone hormone)
- Somatotrophic hormone(STH) has the function to stimulate skeleton and muscle growth as well as increase blood sugar level.
- Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) or intermedium functions in melanophore development and melanin synthesis as the skin pigment.
- Gonadotrophic consists of hormone related to reproductive system, which are as follows.
a. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); in male it has function to control testes development and spermatogenesis, while in female it has function to control ovarium development and influence follicle development.
- b. Luteinizing hormone (LH); in male it has functions to control secretion of testosterone and endesterone, while in female it has function to determine ovulation and form corpus luteum originating from follicle.
The posterior of hypophysis gland produces several hormones, which are as follows.
- Antidiuretica hormone (ADH) or vasopressin has the function to increase water reabsorption in kidney nephron and increase blood pressure by stimulating arteriole contraction.
- Oxytocin has the function to control mother’s milk secretion, to stimulate uterus contraction, to assist sperm transport, and to play roles in hormone secretion from anterior hypophysis.
Thyroid gland is located at the front part of neck and the lower part of larynx; it consists of two lobes which are connected by a narrow bridge called istimus. Thyroid gland produces tyroxine hormone and triiodotyroin which play roles in growth, development, and metabolism rate.
Thyroid gland actively absorbs iodine from blood to be able to secrete hormone. If the iodine intake is less than normal, it will cause thyroid gland swelling Thyroxin hormone deficiency is called hypothyroidism. If the condition occurs during childhood, it may cause cretinism (dwarf). The body condition which undergoes thyroxin hormone excess is called hyperthyroidism. A porson with hyperthyroidism will have hypermetabolism symptom or morbus basedowi.
Epiphyses gland lies in dorsal brain. The function of hormone secreted by this gland is unknown yet.
Parathyroid gland attaches to thyroid gland. The function is produce parathyroid hormone (PTH). The PTH plays a role in regulating calcium exchange in blood and in decreasing phosphate level.
The function of thymus gland deficiency will become dwarf, whereas excessive thymus gland will cause gigantism (giant body) acromegaly which is a pipe bone growth to the side.
Adrenal Gland consists of cortex (outer part) and medulla (inner part). Cortex secretes several groups of steroid hormones, which are as follows.
1. Glucocorticoid has the function to control metabolism (carbohydrate, protein, lipid), blood sugar level, and immunity against infection, i.e. cortisol.
2. Mineralcorticoid has the function to control salt and water balance in blood blood pressure, and to increase natrium reabsorption in kidney as well as water reapsorption in kidney tubules, i.e. aldosteron.
3. Sex Hormone includes male hormone (androgen) and female hormone (estrogen). Deficiency of adrenal cortex hormone will generate Addison disease. Coversely, excessive of this hormone will cause Cushing syndrome.
Medulla Produces adrenalin hormone (norepinephrine). Adrenalin has the function to maintain blood pressure and heart beat also to convert glycogen into glucose which increases blood sugar level. Noradrenalin acts conversely with adrenalin and functions in decreasing blood pressure.
Pancreas gland lies transversally between kidneys. It functions as exocrine gland producing digestive secrete or as endocrine gland producing hormone Pancreas Gland is composed of a collection islets of Langerhans cells. The hormones Secreted by this gland are as follows.
1. Insulin Coverts glucose into glycogen in liver and striated muscle and encourages glucose usage by peripheral tissues. A person with insulin deficiency will have diabetes militus.
2. Glucagon increases blood sugar level by converting glycogen into glucose.
Sex gland (Gonad)
Gonad in male is testes that is necessary to produce sperm cells and testerone hormone. It is very important to stimulate secondary sexual characteristic and sexual behavior.
Gonad in female is ovarium whose function is to produce several hormones which are as follows.
1. Estrogen which has function to stimulate secondary sexual characteristics and sexual behavior
2. Progesteron which has function to maintain pregnancy, and the growth and development of milk gland.
3. Relaxin which has function to prevent uterus contraction and to ease delivery process
Intestine and stomach
Intestine and stomach produce peptide hormone which controls digestive secretion. Intestine secretes juice and colesistokinin hormone. Secretin is necessary to stimulate bile secretion. Stomach produces gastrin which functions in stimulating gastric juice secretion. Stomach produces gastrin which functions stimulating gastric juice secretion.