|Several external factors influencing plant's growth are water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and mineral|
Factors Influencing Growth And Development There are several factors that influence plant growth and development. We can divide the factors into external and internal factors.
|Etiolation Symptom is marked by pale color and small leaves on plant|
b. Normal Plant
External factors include influences coming from environment, such As water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, temperature, light, nutrients in soil, and Pollutant
Nutrient in Soil
Water is very important for plants because it acts as a media for Chemical reaction within cells, basic component to form nutrition, and facilitator to help circulating nutrition through out plant's body. Plants which lack of water wither by which their green color changes into yellow dries. And finally dies.
Plants require oxygen to break down nutrient they produce into simple substances and energy. The process to break down nutrient by using oxygen is called cellular respiration. Then, plants will use the energy they produce to do their activities, one of which is growth. If oxygen supply is insufficient, then the process of growth and development will be disturbed.
Just like water, carbon dioxide is required in the process of nutrient Manufacture through photosynthesis process. The lack of carbon dioxide can also decrease nutrient manufactured.
Light is required by plant to conduct photosynthesis. Plant which grows in dark room or gets little light will produce long and weak stems, small size leaves; and pale. This growth condition is known as etiolation symptom. In the order hand, plant that grows in enough light condition will, produce strong stem, more developed leaves and green color.
On some plant species, especially plants which grow on four-season countries, the length of light period has strong influence on plant growth and development. As the consequence, there are plants known as short day plants, long day plants, and neutral day plants. Plant’s respond to the length of the periods of light is called photoperiodism.
Basically, temperature required by plant for growth and development is different from one another. It depends on the plant species and its habitat. However, generally, plant grow and development occur at temperature 4- 45C and its optimum growth and development occur at temperature range 28- 33C. Optimum temperature is required because growth activity enzyme is an enzymatic process enzyme. Enzyme is not able to work in temperature that is to low or too high.
Nutrient in Soil
Plant required various nutrients in soil. They are use as components to make organic matter in cell. Nutrient in soil can be classified into macronutrient and micronutrient macronutrients are required in large amount, while micro nutrient are required in smaller amount.
Pollutant can hamper plant’s grow. Many pollutant composed of poisonous gasses (such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sulfide) are capable of restraining growth, even bringing plant’s to death. Detergent from household or industrial waste is also able to restrain plant growth, such as a condition that often occur on farm plant.