Jumat, 25 Oktober 2013

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Anabolism of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

 The relation between the anabolism of carbohydrate. fat, and protein. it has been explained that glycolysis produces relatively small amount of ATP The next reaction is to change pyruvic acid into acetyl-CoA and later into citric acid. Most of the ATP is formed from oxidation in citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and also related with electron transport chain.

when muscle activity increases, pyruvic acid tends to be changed into lactic acid than to acetyl-CoA. However, when the muscle relaxes, lactic acid is converted again into pyruvic acid, which is then changed into glucose. The convection process of pyruvic acid into glucose is called glucogenesis (anabolism). If glucose is not needed yet, the pyruvic acid will be converted into glycogen through glycogenesis.

 The  relation  between the anabolism of carbohydrate.  fat, and protein. Basically  the synthesis of carbohydrate,  fat, and protein requires  energy. Energy  (in the  form  of ATP)  is needed  for activating biosynthesis.

meanwhile, fat and oil syntheses occur through three stages as follows

  1. Glycerol Synthesis. Glycerol is synthesized from intermediate compound produced in glycolysis, namely dihydroxi asetone phosphate that later will be converted into glycerol phosphate.
  2. Fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acid is synthesized from repeated addition of malonil-CoA which is derived from acetyl-CoA.
  3. Glycerol and fatty acid combination. This is the terminal stage. Glycerol in the form of glycerol phosphate is combined with three other molecules of fatty acid to form triglyceride.
Protein synthesis occurs in ribosome. The synthesis unit is amino acid which is connected by peptide bond. Peptide bond is the chemical bond between amino groups and carboxyl groups.

Fat and protein that we consume can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. Glucose provides energy in brain and other tissues. Therefore, it can be concluded that all of the series of catabolism of carbohydrate provide the entry point of fatty acid, glycerol, and aminoacid catabolism, and also can lead to the anabolism process. For example, the result of starch catabolism provides materials for the synthesis process of fat.

Source: Biology. Concepts & connection, 2006

The Relation Between Metabolism of carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

Catabolism of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein
Anabolism of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

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