Jumat, 25 Oktober 2013

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Catabolism of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

Carbohydrate metabolism occurs in small intestine where monosacharidev absorption into blood vessel occurs. Sugar concentration in blood is controlled by three hormones, insulin, glucagon, and epinefrine. When the sugar concentration in blood increases, insulin is secreted by pancreas. Insulin stimulates transfer of glucose into cells, especially in liver and muscle even though other organs are also capable of doing sugar metabolism.

Catabolism of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

Glucose is the main energy source for most cells. Energy requirement does not depend on glucose because the cell can also use other organic matters as energy source, such as fat, protein, and other carbohydrate molecules besides glucose.

The relation between catabolism  carbohydrate, fat, and protein.  Some substances from  carbohydrate,  fat, and protein enter glycolysis and electron  transport  to produce energy.

When glucose is quickly needed as energy supply, metabolism process will occur, and it is called glycolysis (catabolism). The final products of catabolism are pyruvic acid and ATP. One of the big advantages of glucose oxidation stages into CO2, and HO2 is intermediate compound production.

When fat is used as energy source, glycerol will be converted into PGAL and enter the glycolysis pathway. Fatty acid will also be changed into acetyl- CoA and enter the respiration pathway to be oxidated in mitochondria. Amino acid and protein can also function as energy sources which can be obtained from deamination process. The amino acid will enter respiration pathway with some of the following possibilities.

  1. Amino acid of glysine, serine, alanine, and cysteine are converted into pynrvic acid. Pymvic acid enters mitochondria to undergo oxidation process. 
  2. Amino acid of fenilalanine, leusine, isoleusine, thereonine, lysine, triptophan, and tyrosine are converted into acetyl-CoA. 
  3. amino acid of asparagine and aspartic acid are converted into oxaloacetic acid. 
  4. amino acid of fenilalanine and tyrosine are converted into fumarate acid. 
  5. Amino acid of glutamine, glutamic acid, arginine, hystidine, and proline are converted into a-ketoglutarate acid. 
  6. Amino acid of valine, isoleusine, and metionine are converted into succinate acid.
Sources: biology. Concepts & connection, 2006.

The Relation Between Metabolism of carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

Catabolism of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein
Anabolism of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

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