Rabu, 12 Maret 2014

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Derterminatian XY Type, X chromosome, Ploidy Level



Basically, determination is influenced by chromosome (genosome). However, in some organisms the determination is Influenced by the ratio of chromosome to body chromosome (autosome) And the body level of chromosome.

determimation Of XY Type

In this case, we know several types of chromosome. For example, chromosomes XY, XO, ZW, and ZO.

Determination by Chromosome

Several ways of Determination in living organism. (a-c)Based on the type chromosome and (d) based on the level of chromosome ploidy

Determination In Human

XY type can be found in mammals (including human). In mammals, X chromosome determines female , while Y chromosome determines male . Therefore, normal mammal is female if the body carries XX chromosome and male if it carries XY chromosome.

Determination of XO type

XO type can be found in several insects in ordo Orthoptera and Heteroptera, i.e. grasshopper. The insect is female if it has chromosome XX and male if it has chromosome XO.

Determination of ZW Type

ZW type can be found in butterfly, fish, reptile, and bird. The animal is male if it has chromosome ZZ and female if it has chromosome ZW.

Determination of ZO type

In ZO type, the animal is male if it has chromosome ZZ. It is a female If it has chromosome ZO.
determination based on the ratio of X chromosome to Autosome

In fruit fly (DrosophiIa melanogaster), the Y chromosome and X chromosome do not determine the type of male and female. The Y chromosome only determines fertility, whereas the X chromosome

Determination In Human

determines viability. In this case, the determination of type in fruit fly in based on the ratio between X chromosome and autosome.

Karyotype, Equality of X chromosome with autosome and type of fruit fly

fruit fly is said to be female if the ratio of X chromosome to autosome is 1.0 and male if the ratio is 0.5. The bigger or smaller ratio will produce abnormal fruit fly.

super female and super male flies have abnormality and retardation in their-body's organs. Generally, they also infertile and have short life inter fly is the fly that has abnormality in mosaic tissues. It means, there is irregular mix between male tissues and female tissues' Inter fly is also infertile.

Determination By Ploidy Level

For some animals, the determination is based on the chromosome ploidy instead of chromosome. This case usually occurs in insects that belong to ordo Hymenoptera (i.e. honey bee and ant). Honey bee and ants are said to be male if the chromosome is haploid (n). This organism is born from parthenogenesis process (without fertilization). Honey bee and ant are said to be female if the chromosome is diploid (2n).Diploidy organism is resulted from fertilization of egg cell and sperm cell'

Source: Essential Biology, 2006.

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