Selasa, 17 November 2015

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Several Steps In a Scientific, Formulating problems, Proposing Hypotesis, Drawing Conclusion

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A person who studies biology is called a biologist. Biologists learn about nature not only from reading but also from investigating organism and the phenomena of life directly. The investigation and study are done systematically; a process called a scientist method.

Scientist Method
Scientist work scientifically by a scientific method. It is away or series of steps of action that are followed by scientists in doing scientific investigation or research. It can be formulated in several steps.

Formulating a Problem
Scientific investigation is started when a question arises in regard to the natural world For example, we see two plants growing in two different places, one is in open-lighted space (plant A) and the other is in shaded space (plant B). we may ask then why the growth of plant A is better than plant B


See Formulating Problem and question


Proposing a Hypothesis
Problem which are formulated in the form of question will raise proposed responses. These responses are temporary answers or hypothesis toward the formulated problem.

A hypothesis is often based on previous knowledge and scientific research. They can be obtained from books, journal articles, newspaper, internet or quotations.

In the case, the hypothesis will be plant A grows better in open space than plant B in shaded place because sunshine affects the rate of growth of plant A.


Performing an Experiment
Hypothesis need to be tested or proven by performing an experiment. Before the actual experiment, measures on the kinds of materials and tools to used and affecting variables have to be determined


Determined Tools and Material
Before conducting an experiment, the tools and material have to be determined. Besides, the limitations of resources, including the available funds, have to be taken in to account.

The limitations of resources will greatly affect the proposed experiment. As an example, to know whether temperature plays a role in plant growth, there has to be a thermometer available. If it is not, the temperature cannot be measured accurately and its effects to plant growth will still be In question.


Determining Variables
The next step is determining the variables of the experiment. Variables are the characteristics of the objects which can be measured quantitatively and may have changing values. For example, the growth of the plant has height as its variable.

There are two kinds of variables in an experiment, independent and depend.

Independent variable is the variable that is changed or manipulated by the subject of experiment, while the dependent variable is the variable that changes due to the experiment.

In many biological experiment, there are usually two groups of treatment: a treatment group which receives treatment and a control group (i.e a group not receiving treatment). The treatment that are given to the group are based on the availability of tool, materials, and funds.

As an example, an experiment is done with the title, “ The Effect of Light Intesity towards Plant Grow”. The treated groups in this experiment receive a varying light intensity, while the control group is kept out in the open space. In this case, light intensity is the independent variable and plant growth is the dependent one. Meanwhile, all other variables that are not under investigation such as temperature and water are kept equal for both in threat and control groups. In order to ensure a fair test.

After tools, material, and variables are determined, the experiment, “The Effect of Light Intensity towards Plants Growth”, is started by placing plant A in spaces where light intensity varies. If it does not grow well where the light intensity is low, then we know that light is needed for growth. However, we still have to perform a controlled group by planting in a region with constant light intensity. This particular plant is the control or standard plant.

All the plants in the experiment should receive equal treatment for all other variables. Those are the kinds of the plant, the size of the port, the type of the soil, and the amount of water. It is very important that experiment is done in batches or repetition to ensure valid and reliable results.


Drawing Conclusions
After an experiment is done, conclusions can be drawn. A conclusion contains the results of the experiment. It may or may not support the formulated hypothesis.



Scientific Attitude
In researching an organism or phenomenon, biologists should be have scientifically. Scientific thinking and attitude will be useful in solving daily problem or phenomenon. They are explained below


1. Able to differentiate between facts and opinions

2. Honest and truth towards facts.

3. Courage based on hospitality in raising question and argumentation.

4. Exploring curiosity

5. Concern towards the environment.

6. Starting opinion or arguments scientifically and critically.

7. Dare to suggest improvement and be willing to be responsible for it

8. Cooperative

9. Discipline and perseperance

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