Kamis, 29 Agustus 2013

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4 Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity

The followings are some factors that influence Enzyme reaction rate.

Temperature rise causes molecules move rapidly. In this condition, a Reaction can occur rapidly or cannot occur at all (stop). It is because every Enzyme has specific optimum temperature allowing a reaction to occur in maximum rate. The temperature that is too high or over the optimum limit will cause enzyme denaturation. Denaturation is the change of enzyme's chemical structure that damages the Enzyme so it cannot function.

pH ( Acidity Level )
Generally, optimum pH of an Enzyme ranges between 6-8. However, some exception can occur. For example, in human stomach, pepsin function optimally in pH of 2. The extreme change of pH can also cause Enzyme denaturation.

Environmental factor that influences the enzyme. (a) 0ptimum temperature for two enzymes and (b) optimum pH for two enzymes.

Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity. There are two types of inhibitor, competitive inhibitor and non- competitive inhibitor.

competitive inhibitor is a substrate-like chemical compound that can react with the active side of enzyme. when the active side has been filled with competitive inhibitor, the substrate cannot bind the enzyme.

Non-competitive inhibitor is a chemical compound that decreases enzyme activity by attaching to one part aside the active side known as allosteric side. consequently, the active side is difficult to bind with substrate and the enzyme cannot convert the substrate into product.

As long as the inhibitor is tight, the enzyme cannot work.

Substrate Concentration
The excessive amount of substrate can decrease enzyme activity. To overcome this condition, cell usually synthesizes enzyme to increase the amount of the enzyme.

source: Biology, Concepts & Connections, 2006

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