Senin, 11 Maret 2013

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Respiratory Mechanism, Volume, And Frequency

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Respiratory Mechanism

While breathing, inspiration and expiration processes are controlled by diaphragm muscles and intercostals muscles. Based on the process of inspiration and expiration, human respiratory mechanism is distinguished into thoracic breathing and abdominal breathing.


Alveoli surface is covered by blood capillary that allows the diffusion of CO2 and O2


1. Thoracic Breating 
During Inspiration, when the external intercostals muscles contract, the ribcage is lifted up and the volume of thoracic cavity expands. Air pressure in chest cavity becomes lower that the air pressure outside so that the air from outside enters alveoli chamber.



The movement of ribcage and diapharagm muscles during inspiration and expiration During Expiration, the external intercostals muscle relax again that makes the ribcage downward. The chest cavity flattenes and forces air out of the lungs

2. Abdominal Breathing (diaphragm
During inspiration, when diaphragm muscle contract, diaphragm flattens and the volume of thoracic expands. The pressure in thoracic cavity declines and draws the air into the lungs. During expiration, the muscles of abdominal wall contract while diaphragm muscle loose. Consequently, organ in abdominal cavity and diaphragm are lifted up. The volume of thoracic cavity declines and air pressure inclines so that the air is forced out of the lungs.

Volume Of Breating Air 
In normal condition, a normal adult inhales and exhales about 500 ml of air which is called tidal volume (normal breathing).

Division scheme of breathing air volume of human

After doing normal breathing, we still can intake air as much as approximately 1,500 ml wich is called complementer volume and forces out the air as much as approximately 1,500 ml which is called supplementer volume . The air volume of tidal, complementer and suplementer reaches 3,500-4000 ml and it is called vital lung capacity. After breathing out as much as we can, there are approximately 1,000 ml air left in lungs and it is called residual volume. The total sum of air that can be captured by lung in maximum is called total lung capacity (vital lung capacity + residual volume) that is 4,500-5,000 ml.


Breathing Frequency 
In normal adult, breathing frequency ranges between 15 to 18 times per minute while doing heavy activity. Several factors affecting breathing frequency are body activity, age, sex, body temperature, body position, and CO2 and O2 level air.

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