Fatty molecules are composed of C, H, O, and sometimes P and N. Generally, fat consists of triglyceride (neutral lipid) containing glycerol and three fatty acids. Based on the saturation level, fatty acid can be classified into two groups, saturation level, fatty acid can be classified into two groups, saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid.
- Saturated fatty acid is the one that does not contain double bond. For example, palmatic acid and stearic in animal lipid.
- Unsaturated fatty acid is the one that contains double bond. For example, oleic acid and linoleic in plant lipid.
Lipid can be classified into three types, simple lipid (fat and oil), mixed lipid (phospholipid and lipoprotein), and primary lipid (fatty acid and sterol).
Lipid can be obtained from animal (animal lipid) and plant (vegetable lipid).The The sources of animal lipid are meat, egg, milk, cheese, butter, and fish oil. The sources of vegetable lipid are soybean, peanut, candlenut, coconut (coconut oil), sesame, and avocado.
Lipid has several function, some of them are as follows.
- As the permanent energy source that provides 9.3 callorie per gram
- As the carrier of essential nutrient, including fatty acid and fat.
- As a solvent of vitamin A, D, E, and K.
- As a food storage.
- As a flavor enhancer.
- As a hungry depressant.