Heredity is the characteristic inheritance from parents to the offisprings. The law of heredity was found in 1900 based on the hypothesis formula discovered by Gregor Mendel (1882-1884), an Austrian monk. Mendel is considered to have a big role in developing basic principles of modern genetics; therefore he is known as the Father of Genetics. He stated that trait determination factor (factor X, later known as gene) is divided into separated units and bequeathed randomly.
|Gregor Mendel, the scientist known as the Father of Genetics|
To compose the hypothesis, Mendel conducted a series of experiments of pea (Pisum satiaum) cultivation from 1857 to 1865. Based on the experiment, Mendel composed atheory of heredity, even though it was rejected by the society at that time. However, after many new discoveries emerged, such as nucleic acid (1870), chromosome as the carrier of g
The seven characteristics of pea
Why did Mendel use pea plant instead of using other plant species? Mendel thought that pea plant fulfilled several requirements that could be used in genetic experiment. For example, pea plants have several distinct traits that can be studied, have an ability to do self-pollination, have a flower structure that constricts incidental contact, and the offsprings produced from self-fertilization are fertile.
There are seven characteristics studied by Mendel in his experiment. The seven characteristics emerged in different form and easy to recognize, which are as follows.
- The shape of mature seeds: round, or wrinkled,
- The color of cotyledons: green or yellow:.
- The color of flowers: purple or white.
- The color of immature pods: green or yellow.
- The shape of mature pods: constricted or full.
- The position of flowers: terminal or axial
- The height of plants: tall or short.
In the experiment, Mendel used about 28.000 pea plants. The result showed that a trait or a characteristic was transferred from each parent to the offsprings through heredity factors.
Hybridization technique in pea plant by mendel