Plant Tissue Culture
Totipotency theory states that every single cell has an ability to reproduce, to form organ, and to develop into perfectly new organism when they are grown on appropriate medium and environment. The theory becomes the principle to grow cell or tissue of plant into complete organ or plant by in vitro. The technique is known as cell culture or tissue culture.
Tissue Culture is a technique to separate cell, protoplasm tissue, or organ of plant and grow the part on nutrient containing growth regulator hormone in aseptic or sterile condition, so that the part can produce and regenerate into complete plant.
Not or cell or plant can be grown by in vitro. It is because each cell and genotype has different response on in vitro growth, even though it is grown in similar medium environment.
Some factor that influence plant regeneration by tissue culture technique are as follows.
- Explant Explant is a part of plant used as early material in plant propagation, such as young shoot, young steam, young leaft, cotyledon, anther, or embryo. The important factors in explants are genotype, explants age, site on branch, and sex (male//female).
- Growth Medium Medium to Grow cell/explant of plant basically contains macro nutrient, macro nutrient, and sugar as carbon source. Moreover, culture medium also contains iron, vitamin, Mineral, and grow regulator hormone. The example of tissue culture medium are Murashige and Skoog (MS), Woody Plant Medium (WPM), Knop, Knudson-C, Anderson, and so forth. MS medium is the most common used medium.
- Growth Regulator Hormone Growth regulator hormone has great role in directing plant cell growth. The correct combination of growth regulator hormone results in optimum cell growth. The growth regulator hormones that are often used are group of auxin, such as Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), Napthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), 2,4-D, CPA, and IBA, group of cytokinin, such as Kinetin, Benziladenin (BA), 21-P, Zeatin, Thidiazuron, and PBA, group of giberelin, such as GA3, and group of growth retardant, such as Acymidol, Paclobutrazol, TIBA, and CCC.
- Growth Environment Growth Environment that can influence plant regeneration include temperature, light intensity, light quality, and size of culture dish.