Jumat, 19 Oktober 2012

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Summary Movement System

2012 Summary Movement System

  1. Bone is known as a passive movement organ, while muscle is known as an active movement organ.
  2. Bone function as a body frame, giving shape to body, an attachment site for muscle, a crowbar, a protection of internal organ, a calcium and mineral storage, and a site to produce red blood cells, leukocyte, and coagulating blood cell.
  3. Bone is composed of a lot of osteon units or haversian system that consists of one central canal named haversian canal surrounded by the layers called lamella (thin membrane). Bone cells ossupy hollows called lacunae.
  4. Cartilage consists of cartilage cells called chondrocyte, which are surrounded by chondrin matrix.
  5. There are two kind of bone formation processes or ossification, which are chondral ossification and desmal ossification.
  6. Interconnection of bones consists of synarthrosis connection (rigid), symphysis/amphiarthrosis (allowing only slight motion) and diarthrosis (can move freely).
  7. The skeleton can be distinguished into two group, axial and appendicular . Axial skeleton consists of skull, spine, rib, and chest bone. The appendicular skeleton consists of shoulder blade, pelvic, as well as upside and downside movement organs.
  8. Smooth muscle work beyond conscious control. It is elongated, has spindle-shaped fibers with out transversal fiber which work under conscious. Each cell has central nucleus. The stimulation comes from autonomic nerve system.
  9. Striated muscle fibers (skeletal muscles) are cylindic, elongated and transversal fibers, and multiplenucleated. This muscle work under the nerve central system and composes most of the meat on vertebrates.
  10. The heart muscle cell has transversal and elongated fibers but not symmetrical, has the central nucleus and fibers that branch off on the connection of its cell. This muscle also work unconsciously, and the source of stimulation comes from the autonomic nerve system.
  11. The antagonist muscle contraction are extensor With flexor muscle, abductor muscle with adductor muscle, depressor with elevator, and supinator with pronator. 12. The disorders in movement organs include bone disorders (fracture, rachitic, osteoporosis, necrosis, kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis, paralysis), joint disorders (arthritis, dislocation, anchylosis, lupus, bursitis), and muscle disorders (dystrophy, tetanus, atrophy).

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