To do activities, human require 0_2 as the fuel source to produce energy carried through circulation system. Human circulatory system is called cardiovascular system (Greek, kardia=heart; vasculum= vessel). The system is important to carry nutrient and oxygen throughout the body, to carry metabolism waste from tissues to excretion organs, and to transport hormone and endrocrine glands toward certain part of body. Since blood flows through canal (vessel), human circulatory system are closed. (cardiovascular) system consist of heart, blood vessel, and blood.
Heart is an organ functioning as a device to pump blood throughout the body. Heart is located in a sack from connective tissue called pericardium.
Structure of heart Anatomy
Heart is formed by heart muscle and connective tissue. The organ has three layers, epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. Epicardium (the outer layer) is composed of connective tissue. Myocardium (in the middle of epicardium and endocardium) has fuction to control the rate of heart pulse. Endocardium (the inner layer) is composed of a layer of endothelium tissue.
Within the heart, there is a partition (septum) that separates the right side and left side of the heart. The inner part of heart comprises of two atriums and two ventricles. The atrium is a chamber that receives blood from vein, while ventricle is responsible for pumping blood out of heart.
Heart is equipped by a valve (valvula) to maintain the direction of the flow of the blood . there are three types of heart valve , three leaflet valves (tricuspid/atrioventricular valve), two leaflet valves (bicuspid/mitral valve), and seminular valves.
Hearts’s function is controlled by involuntary nerve system. The nerve nodes that can be found in the heart are as follows :
- Sinoatrial node (keith-flack) is located in the right antrium to from weinchebah nerves
- Antrioventricularis node (Tawara) is located in the ventricles between the antrium
- His bundle node is located in the partition between ventricles and branches into purkinje fiber.
Blood pathwar in heart
Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava carry deoxygenated blood and CO2 –rich blood entering the right antrium. Throught tricuspid.
Valve, blood is transferred to right ventricle. Thr toough pulmonary semi lunar valve, blood is transferred to bronchi an pulmonary artery, then goes into lungs. Pulmonary vein carrying oxygenated blood and poor of CO2 enters the left antrium before it flows through bicuspid valve into left ventricle. Afterward, blood is transferred through aortic semi lunar valve to the aorta, then reaches certain parts of the body.